F1: TOP 30 FLARING COUNTRIES (2013-2015)
Russia( 1) Iraq( 2) Iran( 3)US( 4)
Venezuela( 5) Algeria( 6) Nigeria( 7) Mexico( 8) Angola( 9) Malaysia( 10) Kazakhstan( 11) Indonesia( 12) Egypt( 13) Libya( 14) Oman( 15) India( 16) SaudiArabia( 17) China( 18) Turkmenistan( 19) Canada( 20) Gabon( 21) Brazil( 22) UK( 23)
RepublicofCongo( 24) Australia( 25) Uzbekistan( 26) Qatar( 27) Cameroon( 28) Ecuador( 29) Vietnam( 30)
r s 2013 2014 2015
“Synthetic crude is a stable product completely
compatible with existing oil infrastructure. It
mixes well with mineral crude and can easily
be upgraded into ultra-high quality drop-in
motor fuels with zero aromatics and no sulfur.
This technology allows for liquid motor fuels
or synthetic crude oil to be produced at the
production site, monetizing otherwise unused
SYNTHETIC FUEL SOLUTIONS
One solution to gas flaring is converting associated gas into
synthetic crude oil. There are a number of technologies that
convert various types of carbon-containing materials into
liquid hydrocarbon fuels, collectively referred to as XTL:
C TL—coal-to-liquid, BTL—biomass-to-liquid, and GTL—
gas-to-liquid. Complex hydrocarbons are created from simpler
organic chemicals through catalytic reactions using the
Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. Synthetic fuels have been
shown to have a number of benefits, such as lower emissions
and enhancements in engine performance.
Synthetic fuel production originated in 1920s Germany,
when German scientists Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch
succeeded in producing hydrocarbons from coal. They produced synthetic fuel, which was used by the Germans during
the Second World War. Unfortunately, the technology was
expensive and produced too many by-products.
Today, new catalysts developed by INFRA Technology
allow synthetic fuel to be produced at a lower cost, with no
by-products. This technology is differentiated by the use of
proprietary pelletized cobalt-based catalyst in the Fischer-Tropsch step of the process with the new generation
modularized tubular fixed bed reactor.
INFRA.xtl technology process consists of two main stages.
Stage one is the generation of synthesis gas - conversion of
carbonaceous material like natural gas into a mixture of
hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The steam methane reforming (SMR) is used extensively in the chemical industry in the
manufacturing of ammonia, methanol and hydrogen.
The second stage is the F-T process using the proprietary
INFRA.xtl cobalt-based catalyst; the catalytic conversion
using the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reaction of syngas into
a mixture of middle distillates such as gasoline, kerosene
and diesel, which contains no sulfur, tar, or carcinogenic
A less complicated flow sheet improves CAPEX, OPEX,
and process efficiency. The process is uniquely optimized
for the production of clean hydrocarbons without the addition
of oxygenates. This eliminates the costs associated with
oxygenate utilization either through waste management, or
additional processing, marketing and logistics of their derivative products. The catalyst’s much higher operating
temperature when compared to similar catalysts—up to
260°—represents another significant improvement since it
allows the reactor to generate industrial heat. As a result,
heat management of the process becomes much more efficient, driving the INFRA.xtl technology-based plant productivity higher.
One of the primary advantages of INFRA.xtl is the liquid
light hydrocarbon mixture which comes straight out of the
Fischer-Tropsch reactor without the cumbersome and cap-ital-intensive hydrocracking and upgrading stage.
Synthetic crude is a stable product completely compatible
with existing oil infrastructure. It mixes well with mineral
crude and can easily be upgraded into ultra-high quality
drop-in motor fuels with zero aromatics and no sulfur. This
technology allows for liquid motor fuels or synthetic crude
oil to be produced at the production site, monetizing oth-